First International Conference on METALS AND THE BRAIN: From Neurochemistry
to Neurodegeneration (University of Padova, Italy: 20-23 September 2000)
ALUMINUM AND HEALTH
Aluminum is an environmentally abundant element to which we are all exposed. The neurotoxicity of this metal has been known for more than a century. More recently, it has been implicated as an etiological factor in some pathologies (including encephalopathy, bone disease, anemia) related to dialysis treatment . In addition, it has been hypothesized to be a cofactor in the etiopathogenesis of some neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), although, despite many studies in several laboratories in different countries, direct evidence is still, so far controversial. Thus, examples of aluminum neurotoxicity are well recognized-in experimental animals and in individuals with renal failure (consequent upon aging, intoxication or renal disease) - and there are grounds to link neurodegenerative disorders to aluminum exposure. Furthermore, an increased concentration of Al in infant formulas and in solutions for home parenteral nutrition has been associated with neurological consequences and metabolic bone disease, characterized by low-bone formation rate, respectively.
For all these reasons and on the basis of our many years of scientific experience in this field, we propose the following recommendations as guidelines to avoid risks due to aluminum accumulation and potential intoxication. These recommendations are not rigid and will be updated when relevant new scientific data is available.
CONTRIBUTORS (Provisional list)
* P. Zatta, CNR Center on Metalloproteins. University of Padova, Italy. Coordinator of the Project: Interdisciplinary Approach to The Study of Aluminum Toxicity. E.C.COST D8 "Metals in Medicine".
* C. Canavese, (On the behalf of the Italian Nephrological Society) Le Molinette Hospital, Torino, Italy.
* S. Costantini, Istituto Superiore di Sanit&Mac195;, Roma, Italy.
* M. Gallieni, Dept. of Nephrology, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milano, Italy.
* M. Andriani, +Chief Nephrologist, Dolo General Hospital, Venice, Italy (On the behalf of the SIN-Italian Nephrological Society).
* G. Berthon, CNRS FR1744, Università Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.
* D. Boggio - Bertinet, on the behalf of the Italian Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
* J. Domingo, Faculty of Medicine, Rovira I Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
* T. Flaten, Dept. of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
* M. Golub, Dept. Internal medicine. University of California, Davis, USA.
* N. Goto, Laboratory of General Toxicology, Dept. Safety Research on Biologics, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.
* M. Kawahara, Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Tokyo, Japan.
* T. Kiss, Dept. of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Szeged, Hungary.
* W. Lukiw, LSU Neuroscience Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.
* W. Markesbery, University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Lexington, KY, USA.
* R. Milacic, Josef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
C. Ronco, Director of the Renal Research Laboratory, Beth Israel Med. Ctr, New York, NY, USA.
* H.H. Sandstead, University of Texas, Med. Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
* A. Taylor, Center for Clinical Sciences and Measurement, School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, Guilford, U.K.
This document will be published in relevant scientific journals, and will be sent to all Health Ministers of the European Community as well as to other Public Health Authorities. (FDA, WHO etc.). For further information, please contact Prof. P. Zatta: email@example.com
Padova 20-23 September 2000
ALZHEIMERS/ALUMINUM STUDIES YEAR HEAD INVESTIGATOR AFFILIATED INSTITUTION FINDINGS
1965 Klatzo NIH Injection of animal salts produced changes in the animal brains. J.Neuropathol Exp Neurol 24:187-199, 1965.
1970 Wisniewski Einstein Medical Center Changes in animal brains different from those in Alzheimer's Disease. J.Neuropathol Exp Neurol 29: 163-176, 1970.
1973 McLachlan University of Toronto Brains of Alzheimer's Disease victims have higher Aluminum content.
1976 Alfrey Denver V.A. Hospital Dialysis dementia attributed to Aluminum. NEngl J Med 294: 184-188, 1976.
1979 Ellis University of Sheffield Aluminum affects bones of dialysis patients
1980 Perl University of Vermont Aluminum in Alzheimer's Disease "tangles" in brain. Science 208: 297-299, 1980; Neurotoxicoloy 1: 133-137, 1980.
1981 Markesbery University of Kentucky Aluminum not elevated in Alzheimer's Disease brains. Ann Neurol 10: 511-516, 1981
1982 Perl University of Vermont ALS and Parkinson dementia on Guam associated with Aluminum. Science 217: 1053-1055, 1982.
1985 Greger University of Wisconsin Metallic Aluminum contributes very little to dietary intake
1986 Edwardson Newcastle General Hospital Aluminum in core of senile patient plaques 1986 Drezner Duke University Aluminum may not cause bone disease
1987 Perl Mt.Sinai Hospital Route of entry of Aluminum into body may be inhalation. Lancet1987: 1028
1988 Wisniewski N.Y. State Institute for Basic Research Aluminum not found in cores of senile patient plaques
1989 Martyn University of Southhampton Frequency of Alzheimer's Disease related to Aluminum in drinking water
1990 McLachlan University of Toronto Loss of cognitive function from exposure to McIntyre powder
1990 McLachlan University of Toronto Aluminum can be chemically extracted from brains of Alzheimer's Disease patients, clinical results being evaluated
B.Ghetti and O Bugiani. "Aluminum's Disease" and Alzheimer's Disease. Indiana Medical Center, Department of Pathology
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Jay W. Pettegrew. Aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease: An Evolving Understanding. Neurophysics Laboratory, University of Pittsburg, School of Medicine.
Richard S. Jope. Aluminum Toxicity: Transport and Sites of Action. Department of Pharmacology and euroscience Program, University of Alabama.
Allen C. Alfrey. Systemic Toxicity of Aluminum in Man. Renal Section, Denver Veterans Administration Hospital.
Daniel P Perl. The Aluminum Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease: A Personal View Based on Microprobe Analysis. Neuropathology Division, Mount Sinai Medical Center NY.
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USEPA, 1985, Proposed Phase I and II recommended maximum contaminant levels under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Office of Drinking Water USEPA, Washington, D.C., pp. 119 - 121a.
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Aluminum - Journal Articles
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Study linking fluoride and Alzheimer's under scrutiny (Health Media Watch). Journal of the American Dental Association. Sept 1998; vol. 129(9), pp. 1216-1218.
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For more information on Alzheimer's Disease (AD) see:
* Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR)
* Alzheimer's Association