57 Scientific references and citations
Here are some of the references and citations from an article about independent testing on aspartame by Barbara Mullarkey, the journalist who has been writing about aspartame since its approve. The article was titled NEUROTOXIC POTENTIAL OF ASPARTAME. At a later date we will probably scan it in.
1. Stegink, L.: Filer, L.J. Jr. Aspartame Physiology and Biochemistry.
University of Iowa College of Medicine. Iowa City, IA Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1984.
2. Camfield, P.R.: Camfield, J.M.: Dooley, J.M.: et al with generalized absence epilepsy: A double-blind controlled study. Neurology (42) 1000-1003 (May 1992)
3. Boehm, M.: Bada, J. Racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame at 100 degrees C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (81) August 1984.
4. Walton, R. G. "Seizure and mania after high intake of aspartame." Psychopathology 17:98-106 (1984)
5. Drake, M.E. "Panic Attacks and Excessive Aspartame Ingestion." The Lancet (Sept 13, l986) p. 631
6. Walton, R. G. "The Possible Role of Aspartame in Seizure Induction" Proceedings of the First International Meeting on Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function. (May 8-10 1987) pp.495-499
7. Epstein, C. M.: Trotter, J.F.: et al "EEG Mean Frequencies are Sensitive indices of Phenylalanine Effects on NormalBrain."
Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 72:133-139 (1989)
8. Pinto, J.M.B." Maher, T. J. "Administration of Aspartame Potentiates Pentlyeneterazole and Fluorothyl-Induced Seizure in Mice."
Neuropharmacology 27 (1):51-55 (l988)
9. Olney, John "Excitatory Neurotoxins as Food Additives: An Evaluation of Risk." Neurotoxicology 2:163-192 (1980)
10. Koehler S.M.: Glaros, A. "The effect of aspartame on migraine headache." Headache 28:000-000 (l988)
11. Edmeada, J. Editorial: "Aspartame and Headache." Headache, pp.64-65 (February, 1988)
12. Lipton, R. B.; Newman, L. C.: Solomon, S. "Aspartame and headache, (re:Schiffman et al study)," New England Journal of Medicine 318 (18): 1200-1201 (May 5, 1988)
13. Steinmetzer, R.V.: Kunkel, R.S. "Aspartame and Headache" New England Journal of Medicine 318 (18): 1201 (May 5,1988)
14. Koehler, Shirley; and Glaros, Alan. "The Effect of Aspartame on Migraine Headache." Headache 28 (1):10-14 (l988)
15. Olney, J. W.; and Ho, Ol. "Brain damage in Infant Mice Following Oral Intake of Glutamate, Aspartate or Cysteine." Nature 227:609-611 (August 8, 1970)
16. Olney, J. W. "Excitotoxic Food Additives - Relevance of Animal Studies to Human Safety." Neurological Behavioral Toxicology and Teratology 6:455-462 (l984).
17. Olney, J. W.; Labruyere, J: DeGubaret, T. "Brain Damage in Mice from Voluntary Ingestion of Glutamate and Aspartame." Neurobehavioral Toxicology 2:125-129 (l980)
18. Roberts, H. J. "Does Aspartame Cause Human Brain cancer?" Journal of Advances in Medicine 4 (4): 231-241 (Winter, 1991).
19. Potenza, D." El-Mailakh, Rif S. "Aspartame: Clinical Update." Connecticut Medical Journal 53 (7): 395-400 (l989)
20. Sardesai, V.M.: Holliday, J.F.; et al. "Effect of Aspartame in Normal and Diabetic Rats." Biochemical Archives 2:237-243 (l986)
21. Federal Register 48:54993-54995 (Dec 8, l983)
22. Yokigoshi, H.: Roberts, C. F>: Caballero, B.: Wurtman, R. J. "Effects of Aspartame and Glucose Administration onBrain and Plasma Levels of Large Neutral Amino Acids and Brain 5-Hydroxyindoles." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 40:1-7 (July 1, 1984)
23. Krause, W.:Halminksi, M." et al. "Biochemical and Neuropsychological Effects of Elevated Plasma Phenylalanine in Patients with Treated Phenylketonuria." Journal of Clinical Investigation 75: 40-48 (January, 1985).
24. Pardridge, W.M. "Potential Effects of the Dipeptide Sweetener Aspartame on the Brain. Nutrition and the Brain 7:199-241 (l986)
25. Gaines, S. M.: Bada, J.I. "Reversed Phase, High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Separation of Aspartame Diastereomeric Decomposition Products." Journal of Chromatography. 389-:219-225 (l987)
26. Filer, L. J.; Stegnink. L.D. "Effect of Aspartame on Plasma Phenylalanine Concentration in Humans." Proceedings of the First International Meeting on Dietary Phenylalanine and the Brain Function (May 8-10, l987) pp 25-26
27. Matalon, R.: Michals, K.:et al. "Aspartame Consumption in Normal Individuals and Carriers for Phenylketonuria (PKU)." Proceedings of the First International Meeting on Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function (May 8-10, l987) pp. 81-93
28. Matalon, R. Michals, K." Sullivan, D.; et al. "Aspartame Consumption in Normal Individuals and Carriers for Phenylketonuria (PKU)." University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Nutrition and Medical Dietetics and Epidemiology and Biometry, Chicago, Illinois (l986).
29. Tocci, P.M.: Beber, B. "Anomalous Phenylalanine Loading Responses in Relation to Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate." Pediatrics 52: 109-113 (July l973)
30. Steilman, S.D.:Garfinkel, L. "Artificial Sweetener and One Year Weight Change Among Women." Preventative Medicine 15:195-202 (l986)
31. Blundell, J.E.: Hill, A.H. "Paradoxical Effects of an Intense Sweetener (Aspartame) on Appetite." The Lancet (May 10, l986) pp. l092-1093.
32. Garriga, M., MD; and Metcalf, D.,MD. "Aspartame intolerance" Annals of Allergy 61:63-66 (December 1988)
33. United States General Accounting Office/HRD-87-86, Food and Drug Administration's Approval of Aspartame. (June l987)
34. Council Report: Aspartame review of safety issues. Journal of the American Medical Association l985:254 (3):400
35. Johns,D.R., MD, Letter to the Editor. The New England Journal of Medicine (August 14, 1986)
36. Novick, N.J. "Aspartame-induced granulomatous panniculitis." Annals of Internal Medicine 102:206-207 (l985)
37. McCauliffe, D.: and Poitras, K. "Aspartame-induced lobular panniculitis." J of the American Academy of Dermatology 24 (2):298-299 (February 1991)
38. Kulezycki,A.Jr. "Aspartame induced urticaria. Annals of Internal Medicine 104:207-208 (l986)
39. Wurtman, R.J. "Aspartame: possible effect on seizure susceptibility." Lancet 2:1060. (l985)
40. Schainker, N. and Olney, J.W. "Glutamate Type Hypothalamic Pituitary Syndrome in Mice Treated with Aspartame or Cysteate in Infancy." Journal of Neutral Trans. 35: 207-215 (l974)
41. Reynolds, W. A.: Butler, V." Lemley-Johnson, N. "Hypothalamic Morphology Following ingestion of Aspartame of MSG in the Neonatal Rodent and Primate: A Preliminary Report" Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 2:471-480 (l976)
42. Pizzi, W.J.:Tabor, J.M.:Barnhart,J. "Somatic, Behavioral and Reproductive Disturbances in Mice Following Neonatal Administration of Sodium L-Aspartate." Pharmacological Biochemical Behavior 9::481-485 (l976)
43. Stegnik, L.D.: Brummel, M.C.; et al, "Blood Methanol Concentrations in Normal Adult Subjects Administered Abuse dose of Aspartame." J of Toxicological Environmental Health 7:281-290 (l981)
44. Monte, Woodrow, "Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Health," Journal of Applied Nutrition 36(1):42-54 (l984).
45. Bergeron, R.:Cardinal, J." et al. "Prevention of Methanol Toxicity by Ethanol Therapy." New England Journal of Medicine (December 9, 1982) pp. 1528
46. Tsang, W.S.;Clarke, M.A.; Parrish, F.W. "Determination of Aspartame and Its Breakdown Products in Soft Drinks by Reverse-Phase Chromatography with UV Detection." Journal of Agricultural Fd. Chemicals 33:734-738 (l985)
47. Davoli, E.; Cappeilini, L.' et al. "Serum Methanol Concentrations in Rats and in Men after a Single Dose of Aspartame." Fed. Chemical Toxicology 24 (3):187-189 (l986).
48. Uribe, M. "Potential Toxicity of a New Sugar Substitute in Patients with Liver Disease." New England Journal of Medicine. 306 (3):173-174 (Jan 21, 1981).
49. Wurtman, R.J. "Neurochemical Changes Following High Dose Aspartame with Dietary Carbohydrates." New England Journal of Medicine 309:7 (August 18, 1982).
50. Sharma, R.P.; Coulombe, R.A., Jr. "Effects of Repeated Doses of Aspartame on Serotonin and its Metabolite in Various Regions of the Mouse Brain." Toxicology Program, Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences. Utah State University. (l986).
51. Young, S.N.: Smith, S.E.; et al. "Tryptophan Depletion Causes a Rapid Lowering of Mood in Normal Males." Psychopharmocology. 87: 173-177 (l985).
52. Padridge, W.M. "The Safety of Aspartame." J of the American Medical Association 256 (19):2678. (November 21,l986).
53. Roberts, H.J. "New Perspectives Concerning Alzheimer's Disease." On Call (August 1989) pp. 14-16
54. Walton, R.G.: Hudak, R.: and Green-Waite, R.J. "Adverse REactions to Aspartame: Double-blind Challenge in Patients from a Vulnerable Population." Biological Psychiatary pp. 13-17 (l993).
55. Lipton, S.A.: Rosenberg, P.A. "Excitatory Amino Acids as a Final common Pathway for Neurologic Disorders." New England Journal of Medicine 330 (9):613-622 (l994).
56. Dow-Edwards, D." Scribani, L.: and Riley, E.P. "Impaired Performance on Odor-Aversion Testing Follow Prenatal Aspartame Exposure in the Guinea Pig." Neurotoxicology and Teratoiogy 11:413-416 (l989).
57. Millstone, E. "Sweet and Sour: The Unanswered Questions about Aspartame." The Scoiogist Volume 24, Number 2 (March/April 1994).
Here are some comments from Betty Martini, Mission Possible International, 9270 State Bridge Road Suite 215, Duluth,Georgia 30097, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org who compiled this list:
It should be noted that the study by Dr. Diana Dow-Edwards was originally funded by the NutraSweet Company. When she got disastrous results they withdrew their funding and Dr. Dow-Edwards had to pay for the study herself. Then the NutraSweet Company refused to accept it.
Remember that indictment was sought for fraud on ones funded by Searle. U.S. Attorney Sam Skinner went to work for Searle's law firm defending the case rather than indicting them. Had he done what was asked NutraSweet would probably not be in the market today.
Cynthia Crossen in her book THE TAINTED TRUTH; THE MANIPULATION OF FACT IN AMERICA, says "The read to hell was paved with the flood of corporate research dollars which in 1991 had burgeoned to over $2.1 billion. Researchers are working for people who don't like negative findings and who aren't likely to fund further research by those who produce them. .." "In today's corporate-dominated information market truth has become to belong to those who commission it."
For those who want more information on the politics and "flawed tests" funded by Searle check Mark Gold's web page.